I have a camera with what Panasonic call "Pre-Recording mode" but it only covers a few seconds before the record button is pressed. When it is set to this mode, it is basically recording continuously into a buffer but because of the limitations of the buffer size of my camera it will only pre-record 3 seconds in HD or 7 seconds in SD. As my camera is a few years old I'm sure they have improved on the buffer size but I'm not aware of a specific camera.
There is another mode which is called "Loop mode" which again is a continuous recording onto a special memory card called a P2 card (very expensive for a memory card) I think they are available up to 64Gb size. Once the card is full it wipes the data sequentially and starts recording new video from the beginning again so if you know something happened 10 mins ago you know you've got it on camera (providing it was pointing in the right direction) so you can just stop the recording download to the laptop and start again. I'm not recommending my camera for this job, I'm just pointing out that Panasonic have this technology, so it might be worth starting with that brand.
What ever you end up getting make sure it's in a water proof case or it won't last very long.